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Antiviral Effect of Bee Venom on Foot and Mouth Disease Virus (An in-vitro Study)
Noura Alkhalefa1, Ismail Elkon2, Rashid Manzoor3, Abir Elfiky4, and Mahmoud Mohamadin3*
1Department of Virology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kafrelsheikh University, 33516, Elgeish Street, Kafrelsheikh, Egypt; 2Department of Gynecology &Artificial Insemination, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kafrelsheikh University: 33516, Elgeish Street, Kafrelsheikh, Egypt; 3Veterinary Science Program, Faculty of Health Sciences, Higher Colleges of Technology, P.O. Box 7946, Sharjah, UAE; 4Director of ANDI center of excellence in antivenom research, VACSERA, Postal code: 1179, Giza, Egypt; *Corresponding author:


Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) is the most important contagious disease of cloven-hooved animals. The disease is known to causes huge economic losses to livestock production and trade; therefore, requiring the development of effective preventive and therapeutic interventions. Recently, Bee venom (BV) has been reported to exhibit antiviral activities against many enveloped and non-enveloped viruses. The antiviral properties of BV against Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) have not been enough investigated. Hence, in this work, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of BV against FMDV using cell-based virus inhibition assay, real time PCR and electron microscopy. Treatment of FMDV with BV caused significant (25.7%) reduction in virus titers suggesting a virucidal activity of BV. BV also caused a 20.8% reduction in virus titers when cells were treated with BV before infection suggesting antiviral state induction in cells. This finding was supported by increased interferon-gamma (IFNγ) levels in BV treated cells. These findings suggest BV could be used as a preventive or therapeutic agent.

To Cite This Article: Alkhalefa N, Elkon I, Manzoor R, Elfiky A, and Mohamadin M, 2021. Antiviral effect of bee venom on foot and mouth disease virus (an in-vitro Study). Pak Vet J, 41(2): 279-283.


ISSN 0253-8318 (Print)
ISSN 2074-7764 (Online)